There are three laws that address website accessibility:
- Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”): This requires places of public accommodation to provide accommodations to those with disabilities and can be deemed to require website accessibility under certain circumstances;
- California Unruh Act: This requires that all persons within California are treated equally, including for any facilities, services, or business establishments; and
- California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA): This requires that businesses provide notices to consumers, in an accessible and understandable format, regarding their personal information, and affords guidance to the how consumers can control personal information.
The Unruh Act and the ADA mandated website accessibility. Then the CCPA further required that online priovacy policy and notices be accessible. However, the CCPA differs from the Unruh Act and ADA because the CCPA regulations specific a standard for provide clarity as to what is reasoably accessible; the CCPa essentially adopted the WCAG 2.1 guidelines.
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 covers a wide range of recommendations for making Web content more accessible. Following these guidelines will make content more accessible to a wider range of people with disabilities, including accommodations for blindness and low vision, deafness and hearing loss, limited movement, speech disabilities, photosensitivity, and combinations of these, and some accommodation for learning disabilities and cognitive limitations; but will not address every user need for people with these disabilities. These guidelines address accessibility of web content on desktops, laptops, tablets, and mobile devices. Following these guidelines will also often make Web content more usable to users in general.
For example, there are requirements that:
- Timed content is able to be controlled by the user
- Requirements that a website and its components are functional with screen readers, and (4) websites can be accessible for a user that only utilizes a keyboard
- Text alternatives are provided for non-text content like images or videos
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Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
The ADA prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, State and local government, public accommodations, commercial facilities, transportation, and telecommunications. It also applies to the United States Congress.
To be protected by the ADA, one must have a disability or have a relationship or association with an individual with a disability. An individual with a disability is defined by the ADA as a person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, a person who has a history or record of such an impairment, or a person who is perceived by others as having such an impairment. The ADA does not specifically name all of the impairments that are covered.
California Unruh Act
California Civil Code Section 51 – known as the Unruh Act – states:
(a) This section shall be known, and may be cited, as the Unruh Civil Rights Act.
(b) All persons within the jurisdiction of this state are free and equal, and no matter what their sex, race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, disability, medical condition, genetic information, marital status, sexual orientation, citizenship, primary language, or immigration status are entitled to the full and equal accommodations, advantages, facilities, privileges, or services in all business establishments of every kind whatsoever.
(c) This section shall not be construed to confer any right or privilege on a person that is conditioned or limited by law or that is applicable alike to persons of every sex, color, race, religion, ancestry, national origin, disability, medical condition, marital status, sexual orientation, citizenship, primary language, or immigration status, or to persons regardless of their genetic information.
(d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to require any construction, alteration, repair, structural or otherwise, or modification of any sort whatsoever, beyond that construction, alteration, repair, or modification that is otherwise required by other provisions of law, to any new or existing establishment, facility, building, improvement, or any other structure, nor shall anything in this section be construed to augment, restrict, or alter in any way the authority of the State Architect to require construction, alteration, repair, or modifications that the State Architect otherwise possesses pursuant to other laws.
(e) For purposes of this section:
(1) “Disability” means any mental or physical disability as defined in Sections 12926 and 12926.1 of the Government Code.
(2) (A) “Genetic information” means, with respect to any individual, information about any of the following:
(i) The individual’s genetic tests.
(ii) The genetic tests of family members of the individual.
(iii) The manifestation of a disease or disorder in family members of the individual.
(B) “Genetic information” includes any request for, or receipt of, genetic services, or participation in clinical research that includes genetic services, by an individual or any family member of the individual.
(C) “Genetic information” does not include information about the sex or age of any individual.
(3) “Medical condition” has the same meaning as defined in subdivision (i) of Section 12926 of the Government Code.
(4) “Religion” includes all aspects of religious belief, observance, and practice.
(5) “Sex” includes, but is not limited to, pregnancy, childbirth, or medical conditions related to pregnancy or childbirth. “Sex” also includes, but is not limited to, a person’s gender. “Gender” means sex, and includes a person’s gender identity and gender expression. “Gender expression” means a person’s gender-related appearance and behavior whether or not stereotypically associated with the person’s assigned sex at birth.
(6) “Sex, race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, disability, medical condition, genetic information, marital status, sexual orientation, citizenship, primary language, or immigration status” includes a perception that the person has any particular characteristic or characteristics within the listed categories or that the person is associated with a person who has, or is perceived to have, any particular characteristic or characteristics within the listed categories.
(7) “Sexual orientation” has the same meaning as defined in subdivision (s) of Section 12926 of the Government Code.
(f) A violation of the right of any individual under the federal Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-336) shall also constitute a violation of this section.
(g) Verification of immigration status and any discrimination based upon verified immigration status, where required by federal law, shall not constitute a violation of this section.
(h) Nothing in this section shall be construed to require the provision of services or documents in a language other than English, beyond that which is otherwise required by other provisions of federal, state, or local law, including Section 1632.
(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 282, Sec. 1. (SB 600) Effective January 1, 2016.)
California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA)
The California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (CCPA) gives consumers more control over the personal information that businesses collect about them. This landmark law secures new privacy rights for California consumers, including:
- The right to know about the personal information a business collects about them and how it is used and shared;
- The right to delete personal information collected from them (with some exceptions);
- The right to opt-out of the sale of their personal information; and
- The right to non-discrimination for exercising their CCPA rights.
Businesses are required to give consumers certain notices explaining their privacy practices. The CCPA applies to many businesses, including data brokers.
What is the right to know?
You may request that businesses disclose to you what personal information they have collected, used, shared, or sold about you, and why they collected, used, shared, or sold that information. Specifically, you may request that businesses disclose:
- The categories of personal information collected
- Specific pieces of personal information collected
- The categories of sources from which the business collected personal information
- The purposes for which the business uses the personal information
- The categories of third parties with whom the business shares the personal information
- The categories of information that the business sells or discloses to third parties
Businesses must provide you this information for the 12-month period preceding your request. They must provide this information to you free of charge.
What is my right to delete personal information?
You may request that businesses delete personal information they collected from you and to tell their service providers to do the same. However, there are many exceptions that allow businesses to keep your personal information.
What is the right to opt-out?
You may request that businesses stop selling your personal information (“opt-out”). With some exceptions, businesses cannot sell your personal information after they receive your opt-out request unless you later provide authorization allowing them to do so again. Businesses must wait at least 12 months before asking you to opt back in to the sale of your personal information.
Right to Non-Discrimination
Businesses cannot deny goods or services, charge you a different price, or provide a different level or quality of goods or services just because you exercised your rights under the CCPA.
However, if you refuse to provide your personal information to a business or ask it to delete or stop selling your personal information, and that personal information or sale is necessary for the business to provide you with goods or services, the business may not be able to complete that transaction.
Businesses can also offer you promotions, discounts and other deals in exchange for collecting, keeping, or selling your personal information. But they can only do this if the financial incentive offered is reasonably related to the value of your personal information. If you ask a business to delete or stop selling your personal information, you may not be able to continue participating in the special deals they offer in exchange for personal information. If you are not sure how your request may affect your participation in a special offer, ask the business.
Website Photographs and Images:
- Uses Alternative Text “ALT” and/or “TITLE” attributes. ALT/TITLE attributes provide a written description of the image, which is accessible to screen readers, and it is visible when the mouse is placed over the image. This is also useful for people who have images turned off on their browser, in which case a description will display where the image used to be.
Below you will find a list of some of the technology solutions we have integrated to make a website easy to navigate, fast-loading, and accessible.
- Provide text alternatives for non-text content.
- Provide captions and other alternatives for multimedia.
- Create content that can be presented in different ways, including by assistive
- Technologies, without losing meaning.
- Make it easier for users to see and hear content.
- Make all functionality available from a keyboard.
- Give users enough time to read and use content.
- Do not use content that causes seizures.
- Help users navigate and find content.
- Make text readable and understandable.
- Make content appear and operate in predictable ways.
- Help users avoid and correct mistakes.
Maximize compatibility with current and future user tools.
Located at the top and directly below the main navigation, provides a trail of where you are and where you have been. Breadcrumbs make it easier to navigate your way back to the root folder.